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10 Most common eye defects and treatment.

Your eyesight is one of your most important possessions. It is well known that maintaining the health of your eyes is so essential,knowing this,we bring to your notice these top 10 most common issues people experience with their eyes. If any of these apply to you, please see an ophthalmologist asap before the condition threatens your eyesight.

  1. Cataracts

This an eye defect defined or characterized by a cloudy, milky white lens in the eye, a lot of cataracts are age-related and more common in individuals over 50 (this can also occur at any age). Cataracts can be the outcome of injury, UV exposure, or protein degeneration over time; this is what triggers the eye’s lens to cloud. If left without treatment, cataracts can eventually trigger serious vision loss.

Treatment: Fortunately, cataracts are a typical eye issue that can be treated through surgery. Whether surgical treatment is required depends on the degree of vision loss and whether it affects your quality of life and capability to function.

  1. Keratoconus

Typically, the cornea (the clear outer lens of the eye) has a dome shape, like a sphere. Sometimes,nevertheless, the collagen which holds the cornea in position becomes weak, making the cornea to come to be cone shaped. This problem is called keratoconus. This can cause major loss of vision if not treated early and swiftly. Left without treatment, many individuals will need a cornea transplant.

Treatment: Treatment usually begins with eyeglasses. Contact lenses, normally rigid or inflexible gas permeable ones, may be recommended to enhance the strength of the cornea and thereby enhancing vision. Additionally, cornea collagen crosslinking is commonly effective to assist protect against progression, as well as intacs (implants positioned under the surface of the cornea to minimize the cone shape and improve vision). A last resort is a cornea transplant.

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy occurs as a result of long term high blood sugar related to type 1 and 2 diabetes and can cause blindness if left without treatment. Excessive blood sugar can alter the capillary (blood vessels) in the back of the eye, stopping the retina from receiving the appropriate quantity of nutrients it needs to maintain vision. Any individual with diabetes type 1 or type 2 is at danger of developing diabetic retinopathy. Nonetheless, the type of diabetes an individual has, how frequently their blood sugar fluctuates, exactly how well they control their sugars, and how long they have had diabetes.these all affect his/her risk.

Treatment: In most cases, laser surgical operation can prevent significant vision loss associated with diabetic retinopathy. A procedure called laser photocoagulation can seal or destroy growing or leaking blood vessels in the retina.

  1. Macular Degeneration

This leading reason for blindness is characterized by damages to the macula, the location of the retina that perceives light. Risk factors include: age, smoking, female gender and family history. Unfortunately, there is no known treatment for macular deterioration. Nonetheless, current treatments can slow the progression of the disease.

Treatment: Age-related macular degeneration treatments may prevent severe vision loss or slow down the progression of the disease considerably. Several treatment options are available, including:

Anti-angiogenic drugs. Injected into the eye, these medicines obstruct the development of new blood vessels and also leakage from the abnormal vessels within the eye.

Laser therapy. High-energy laser light can in some cases be used to destroy proactively growing blood vessels.

Photodynamic laser therapy. A two-step treatment in which a light-sensitive drug is utilized for the destruction of the abnormal blood vessels. A medication is injected into the blood stream to be soaked up by the abnormal blood vessels in the eye. A cold laser is then radiated into the eye to activate the drug, damaging the abnormal blood vessels.
Vitamins C, E, beta-carotene, zinc and copper can lower the danger of vision loss in certain patients with intermediate to advanced dry age-related macular degeneration.

  1. Refractive Errors

According to the National Eye Institute, refractive errors are the most usual source of vision problems. Refraction in the eye occurs when light passes through the cornea and the lens.Errors can occur as a result of the length of the eyeball, changes in the shape of the cornea or natural aging of the lens. Nearsightedness, farsightedness and also astigmatism are classified by refractive errors.

Treatment: One of the most usual types of therapy are spectacles, contact lenses and surgery.

  1. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to the eye’s optic nerve and gets worse with time. Associated with a buildup of pressure inside the eye, glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life. The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to the brain. If damage to the optic nerve from high eye pressure proceeds, glaucoma will cause permanent loss of vision. Since majority of people with glaucoma have no early signs and symptoms or pain from this increased pressure, it is essential to see your ophthalmologist regularly to ensure that glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated before long-term visual loss occurs.

Treatment: Once detected, glaucoma can be treated with either surgical treatment, lasers or eye drops.

  1. Presbyopia

Presbyopia is the loss of the ability to plainly see close objects or small print. Part of the natural aging procedure of the eye, presbyopia is usually compared with farsightedness but both are not the same. Presbyopia occurs when the natural lens in the eye loses flexibility, while farsightedness occurs as a result of the natural shape of the eyeball, which causes light rays to bend incorrectly once they have entered the eye.

Treatment: Treatment options include using corrective lenses, undergoing refractive surgery or getting lens implants.

  1. Floaters

Common amongst people over 50, floaters are tiny spots or specks that float throughout the visual field. Formed by a deposit of protein drifting about in the vitreous (the clear, jelly-like compound that fills the middle of the eye), floaters seem to drift in front of the eye but do not block vision. Usually benign, floaters in some cases can indicate a more major eye issue such as retinal detachment, especially if they are accompanied by light flashes. If you see a sudden change in the type or number of spots or flashes you see, visit your ophthalmologist immediately.

  1. Dry eyes

The problem known as “dry eyes” occurs when tear glands can not make adequate tears or produce low quality tears. Dry eyes can be awkward, causing itching, burning and also in rare situations, some loss of vision.

Therapy: Your optometrist might suggest making use of a humidifier in your house, special eye drops that simulate real tears, or plugs placed in tear ducts to decrease tear drainage.

  1. Tearing

If your eyes produce too many tears, this may suggest an eye defect which means that your eyes are especially sensitive to light, wind or temperature changes. Protecting your eyes by shielding them or wearing sunglasses can sometimes solve the problem. Tearing might likewise imply that you have an extra serious trouble, such as an eye infection or an obstructed tear duct. Your eye doctor can treat or correct both of these problems.
These common eye problems can be cured or at least slowed if caught early by an eyecare professional.

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